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Leveraging HUMINT in M&A Due Diligence Processes

M&A review assesses the target company's tech, people, and operations. The customer reviews part of it is important to assess potential risks and liabilities. Therefore, a Competitive intelligence program can help understand the target company's value proposition.

This article explores the strategic implementation of a HUMINT-based competitive intelligence program for due diligence, focusing on engaging with executives who are working or used to work for customers of the target company.

Why Competitive Intelligence for Due Diligence?

During the comprehensive due diligence review or audit for a merger or an acquisition, the target company allows the potential buyer to gain more insight into the target company's technology, its people, and how it operates. To maximize the chances of adding value in an M&A transaction, a thorough review of areas such as finance, operations, strategy, risk, and culture is necessary. One of the important parts of the due diligence process involves the investigation of the target company's customers to assess potential risks, liabilities, and business problems before the transaction. These customer reviews, if done in a proactive competitive intelligence program, separated from the due diligence process, can be the top resource to understand the target company's real value proposition.

Step 1: Compilation of Client List

Before diving into due diligence, building a comprehensive list of clients associated with the target company is essential. This list is the foundation for the subsequent steps and ensures a targeted approach to gather valuable insights. It's important to structure the list efficiently with the following details:

Company Name



Year Joined

Acquired Services

After compiling this list, you can prioritize the engagement order as per the relevant areas for the specific deal.

Step 2: Crafting Informed Questions

To extract meaningful information, it's crucial to formulate a set of questions tailored to the specific nuances of the industry and the target company. Drawing inspiration from B2B surveys for due diligence, inquire about three main areas:

  1. The procurement process

  2. The actual usage

  3. Customer sentiments

The questions should be designed to uncover strengths and weaknesses, providing a holistic view. Click here for a sample questionnaire.

Step 3: Implementation of Hybrid Program

A hybrid approach combining online surveys and telephone conversations is effective for executing a strong competitive intelligence program. Online surveys provide a scalable way to collect data from multiple sources, while telephone conversations with executives add a qualitative dimension to the insights. This hybrid model ensures faster data collection and access to valuable ground-level insights.

Step 4: Data Analysis and Conclusion

The information acquired through HUMINT channels provides a unique perspective, helping to enhance the operational efficiency of the DD process and develop the foresight for strategic M&A planning.

When preparing the insights, focus on:

  • Identify key themes and trends: Analyze survey responses and interview transcripts to identify recurring motifs, pain points, and satisfaction areas regarding the target company's products or services. This helps understand customer sentiment and predict future market dynamics.

  • Assess potential risks and liabilities: Look for red flags in customer feedback, such as dissatisfaction with customer support, legal issues, or product recalls. This information can inform negotiation strategies and risk mitigation plans.

  • Validate internal assumptions: Compare gathered data with existing hypotheses about the target company's strengths and weaknesses. This validation process further strengthens the due diligence findings and decision-making.

  • Gain strategic foresight: Beyond immediate M&A purposes, HUMINT insights can inform long-term product development, marketing strategies, and competitive positioning. This helps future-proof business decisions and adapt to market shifts.


In conclusion, a HUMINT-based competitive intelligence program integrated into due diligence processes empowers businesses to make informed decisions regarding acquisitions and mergers. The insights obtained through surveys and conversations with industry insiders offer a competitive advantage by uncovering hidden risks, validating assumptions, and supporting investment decisions. As organizations strive to navigate the complex business landscape, leveraging HUMINT for competitive intelligence becomes an invaluable tool for sustainable growth and success.


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